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Nuclear Fusion Power - Is the Quest Realistic or a Futuristic Joke?
" ... In the era of global climate change, and concerns about humanity's long-term reliance on fossil fuels, many think the solution lies in alternative sources of energy, including nuclear power. All our nuclear power plants are based on fission: splitting heavy atoms into lighter components in a controlled fashion. Though fission is safe when all goes well, the fuel is radioactive, waste disposal can be problematic, and as the Fukushima disaster showed there is a high cost to accidents.
Nuclear fusion is in principle cleaner and comes from a cheaper, more abundant fuel source: an isotope of hydrogen called deuterium can be extracted from water and only helium is produced as waste. From The Matrix to SimCity 2000 to political dreamers, fusion has often been seen as an inevitability for society. However, despite decades of work nuclear fusion remains a dream. As the joke goes fusion is the power of the future - and always will be. ...
The best-known incarnation of this is the tokamak, first built in the Soviet Union in the 1950s. In a tokamak, deuterium and tritium are injected into a doughnut, or torus-shaped chamber, and heated to the point at which its electrons break free. Magnetic fields running along the centre contain and squeeze the plasma, and the high temperatures within the plasma then facilitate fusion. However, even the best tokamak designs - including the Joint European Torus (JET) in the United Kingdom and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) in the United States - haven't broken the barrier of making more energy than is required to keep the plasma hot and trapped. Much hope is being placed on Iter (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), a €15 billion ($22 billion) project designed to build the world's largest tokamak in the south of France. Iter is expected to commence operation at the end of this decade, with the first proper fusion tests scheduled for 2028. But it has been dogged by logistical issues - last month the US Senate spending panel voted to stop contributions to the project. ... "
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